Windows Servers


AD is a user’s database- Collection of Users Information, Active Directory was used only for centralized domain management.

Active Directory categorizes directory objects by name and attributes. For example, the name of a user might include the name string, along with information associated with the user, such as password

The main service in Active Directory is Domain Services (AD DS), which stores directory information and handles the interaction of the user with the domain.

Active Directory (AD) is Microsoft’s directory and identity management service for Windows domain networks. It was introduced in Windows 2000, is included with most MS Windows Server operating systems, and is used by a variety of Microsoft solutions like Exchange Server and SharePoint Server, as well as third-party applications and services.

AD Benefits

Active Directory provides a variety of functional and business benefits, including:

  • Security – Active Directory helps businesses improve security by controlling access to network resources.
  • Extensibility – companies can easily organize Active Directory data to align with their organizational structure and business needs.
  • Simplicity – administrators can centrally manage user identities and access privileges across the enterprise, helping businesses simplify management and reduce operations expenses.
  • Resiliency – Active Directory supports redundant components and data replication to enable high availability and business continuity.


(A domain controller is a type of server that processes requests for authentication)

A domain controller is a type of computer server that responds to security authentication requests and verifies users on the domain of a computer network. The controller is a gatekeeper for allowing host access to domain resources. It also enforces security policies, stores a user’s account information, and authenticates users for a domain.

Beginning with Windows 2000, the primary domain controller and backup domain controller roles were replaced by Active Directory.

The domain controllers in these domains are considered to be equal, as all controllers have full access to the accounts database stored on their machines.

When a network is comprised of hundreds of computers, managing the authentication of each individual machine may be too complicated.

To simplify this task a single computer (the domain controller) can be dedicated to manage all the authentications for all the others (the clients).

All login credentials of all client computers and devices connected to the network are stored in the DC’s Active Directory. The Active Directory is shared by all computers

User authentication and authorization is critical for protecting your network infrastructure. It ensures that only trustworthy and relevant users can access the network. A Windows Server domain logically groups users, PCs and other objects in a network, while a domain controller authenticates access requests to the domain’s resources. It also stores information about user accounts and devices, and it enforces security policies.

DNS Server

DNS (Domain Name System) is like the phone book of the internet. If you want to visit a website, you will usually type in a domain name like A DNS will convert that into an IP address, which your web browser can understand.

An IP address is a string of characters separated by periods and comas. For example, one IP address for is 73.135.304.106 However, a DNS address is only one part of the equation these days. So, you won’t always be able to access a website using its IP address anymore.

The DNS (Domain Name System) server used by your PC maps domain names (like “”) to IP addresses (like 14.344.418.223).

The easiest way to determine what DNS server you’re using is via Windows Command Prompt.

In Windows 10, right-click on the Start menu and click on Command Prompt (or Windows PowerShell — either will do). In most other versions of Windows, click on Start, then All Programs, then Accessories, and finally on Command prompt.

Type “ipconfig /all” followed by Enter. You’ll get a lot of information.

Domain names were invented to solve this problem by using alphabets and allowing users to select easy to remember names for their websites.

DNS or Domain Name System basically translates those domain names into IP addresses and points your device in the right direction.

A domain name and its matching IP address is called a “DNS record”.

Here is a simple way to understand how DNS works in four steps.

Suppose you want to visit our site at

1. You open your browser and type in the address bar and hit Enter on the keyboard. Immediately there is a quick check to see if you have visited our website previously.

If the DNS records are found in your computer’s DNS cache, then the rest of the DNS lookup is skipped and you will be taken directly to

2. If no DNS records are found, then a query is sent to your local DNS server. Typically this is your Internet provider’s server and is often called a “resolving nameserver”.

3. If the records are not cached on the resolving nameserver, then the request is forwarded to what’s called a “root nameserver” to locate the DNS records. Root nameservers are designated servers around the world that are responsible for storing DNS data and keeping the system working smoothly. Once the DNS record is found on the root nameserver, it’s cached by your computer.

4. Now that the DNS records are located, a connection to the server where the website is stored will be opened and will be displayed on your screen.

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